The defeat of the Catalans on September 11, 1714 resulted in the loss of their constitutions and their institutional system as the Principality of Catalonia. The pro-autonomy Convergence and Union party was founded the following year, and it served as the dominant political force in Catalonia over subsequent decades. But there is no international legal right to secede. The Refurmdum was passed in 2017, there is no need for another one. Catalan identity can already be freely expressed. Catalonia is a region in the Northeast corner of Spain that has a degree of autonomy within the Spanish Constitution but is also part of Spain. Meanwhile, in His stunning, still unfinished Sagrada Familia basilica in Barcelona draws millions of visitors each year, and is just one of the seven Gaudi works that are on UNESCO’s World Heritage List. Prime minister Mariano Rajoy triggered the never-before-used Article 155 of Spain’s constitution and, early Saturday local time, sacked the whole Catalan government and its regional police leaders, and called for fresh local elections. This will be discussed in more detail in the background section. Challenge Period. Initially, the various entities of the Crown of Aragon, including Catalonia, kept their own fueros (furs in Catalan, laws and customs) and political institutions as guarantee of their sovereignty, for which they fought a civil war du… For all these reasons I believe that the Catalans, a people that has always expressed itself through peaceful means, has the right to decide its political future in a free and democratic manner. The Spanish region’s autonomy has been revoked, pending a new regional election in December. We believe it is necessary to voice every opinion without taking sides and that every opinion should be heard. Spain is becoming a rogue State for the sake of denying its national minorities the exercise of their right to self-determination. The regional government already has a measure of self-determination that has been reasonably successful, even after the sometimes brutal att… Catalonia's pro-independence leaders then went ahead with a full referendum on 1 October 2017, which was also declared illegal by Spain's constitutional court. On October 1, 2017, Catalonia voted in a referendum to declare its independence. In the late 15th century, Aragon united by marriage with the Crown of Castile to form what would later become Kingdom of Spain. 16, of 19.01.2011). The establishment of democratic rule in Spain after Franco’s death did not lessen Catalonia’s desire for autonomy, and in September 1977 limited autonomy was granted to the region. At The Rift, we believe in people, in individuals. POLLS. Catalonia formally declared its independence from Spain on Friday (Oct. 27) and the central government in Madrid hit back within hours, stripping the region of all its autonomy. As this decision changed considerably the status of the region, it spurred the Catalan people’s unrest. Today, it is strongly tied to a sense of national identity and pride. Start a New Debate. Plans to let the people of the eastern region break away from Spain has led to months of constitutional debate. Taking all of the above into consideration, the Spanish Kingdom has no legal base to deny the Catalan people their right to self-determination. Voting Period. While the Catalan Parliament voted Spain’s declaration of independence, the Spanish Senate jointly granted extraordinary powers over Catalonia to the President of the Spanish government, Mariano Rajoy. The region already enjoys a wide degree of autonomy … Catalonia. Catalans don’t dance flamenco and they’ve banned bullfighting as cruel and barbaric. Catalonia’s push for independence is far from new. Constitutional Court Ruling 137/2010, of the 16th December, on the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia (BOE no. These documents recognize Catalonia as a Generality – an autonomous region within the Spanish State. FORUMS. During the 2017 Catalan independence referendum, the world witnessed the brutal action of the Spanish police against peaceful voters in polling stations. Franco ruled Spain until 1975, but the Catalans’ strong sense of identity wasn’t beaten, and the language survived his reign. 1. Article 93 of the 1978 Spanish Constitution establishes that Spain must act in a way that complies with the content of international treaties signed by Spain, including the above. Repression continued afterwards, as numerous fundamental human rights of the Catalans have been violated as testified by international organizations such as Amnesty International. On November 9, 2014, a first referendum on the independence of Catalonia was organized by the nationalist parties in the region. “He’s someone who reinvented the language of architecture, which no other architect has ever managed to do,” van Hensbergen said. No less than 2,850 Catalan activists and elected representatives have suffered persecution by Spanish authorities since 2017. Under article 2 of the Constitution, the referendum is deemed unconstitutional by the Constitutional Court. Salvador Dalí, one of the fathers of surrealist art, was born in Figueres, Catalonia in 1904. Organisers said 90% of … Catalonia officials say … ... Catalonia deserves the independence. She said her party the republican left (ERC) hopes it is the first step towards independence. Everyone’s invited to pile onto the human tower, and towns compete with each other as to who can form the highest one. Nevertheless, the Spanish government and courts have been qualifying a Catalan referendum as illegal and unconstitutional, although this is just a masquerade to deny the fundamental rights of a national minority, while conducting a systematic campaign of repression against its members. Catalonia's regional parliament has voted in favor of independence from Spain, ahead of a vote in the Spanish Senate to seize Catalan region's autonomous powers | NewsBytes Sources: EURACTIV, Ouest-France, Euronews, Constitution of 1978, Chair, Catalan National Assembly and Economics Professor at the University of Barcelona. Constitutional Court Ruling 138/2010, of the 16th December, on the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia (BOE no. It’s in part due to the Barcelona native that we have foams, vapors, sands, and bursting pearls on our plates today. CATALONIA'S quest for independence from Spain could spark a domino effect plunging the European Union into crisis as a map reveals the other regions across the continent desperate for autonomy. Furthermore, during the last decade Catalan people and institutions have been suffering the consequences of centralizing policies by the Spanish state, which tries to assimilate both our culture and language while absorbing all economic and political power. In the late-1930s, dictator Francisco Franco cracked down on Catalan autonomy and banned the Catalan language. This day has become the national holiday of Catalonia since 1886. Critics say that increasing the limited autonomy that the region was given in 1978, after the death of General Francisco Franco, will encourage other regions to press for more powers - … It’s also compulsorily taught in schools. Gun control in the United States is a recurring topic – The Rift asked Eric Lundy and Philip Van Cleave their opinions on the matter. independence that would be granted to Catalonia, despite the opposition of ERC, which favoured full independence, and the PP, which claimed that the statute violated the Constitution. After Catalonia declared independence from Spain, Madrid has declared its intent to suspend the region's autonomy this week under Article 155 of the constitution Newsbytes India One of the key figures in Catalonian Modernism, architect Antoni Gaudí, born in 1852, put Catalonia on the map, transforming Barcelona into a capital of architectural inspiration, and massively influencing generations of designers and artists. Kick off each morning with coffee and the Daily Brief (BYO coffee). These are some of our most ambitious editorial projects. By providing your email, you agree to the Quartz Privacy Policy. The Principality of Catalonia was an entity of the Crown of Aragon, created by the dynastic union of the County of Barcelona and the Kingdom of Aragon in 1137. Our emails are made to shine in your inbox, with something fresh every morning, afternoon, and weekend. Your email address will not be published. The independence issue took center stage as Spain's leading politicians debated the Catalan separatist movement ahead of Sunday's vote. Sources: Encyclopaedia Britannica, The Atlantic. Spain could opt to give Catalonia more autonomy in return for the region remaining part of Spain. The reference to a Catalan nation became unconstitutional. The current push for independence, however, has its roots in Catalonia’s 2006 Statute of Autonomy. The independence movement was strengthened when the Spanish Constitutional Court annulled 14 articles of the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia in 2006. Europe has undergone various nation-state realignments since the end of the Cold War. In the past it has also enjoyed varying degrees of autonomy from its more powerful neighbours. You won’t find a preference for flamenco when you visit the region. People of Catalonia love to climb on each other’s shoulders and form huge human towers. Since Spain’s constitutional court overturned this statute in 2010, the regional government has tried unsuccessfully to have it renegotiated, which fueled demands for an independence referendum. My Debates. For or against a new independence referendum for Catalonia? But it has a litany of historic grievances, exacerbated during the … After scenes of jubilation on the streets of the Catalan capital Barcelona yesterday, the stage is now set for major tensions as Madrid starts to take back control of the region. The effects of the ruling are indicated in this document as follows: However, he was denied access to the European Parliament and the allocation of his MEP badge. Catalonia was granted an autonomous status in the Spanish Constitution of 1978 and in the organic laws dating from 1979 and 2006. The right to national self-determination is a cornerstone of international law. Catalonia has already taken the steps to ban bullfighting because the population sees the practice as being barbaric and cruel. These movements resurfaced in the 19th century as the region was experiencing strong industrialization. Economic development has favored the cultural renewal of Catalonia and a return of linguistic and nationalist demands. Catalonia formally declared its independence from Spain on Friday (Oct. 27) and the central government in Madrid hit back within hours, stripping the region of all its autonomy. These include German reunification, the amicable divorce between the Czechs and Slovaks, and the fragmentation of the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia. The new Statute of Autonomy was approved by 73.2% of voters in a referendum held in Catalonia in June, and came into force in August. Catalan is recognized as an official language just like Spanish. Once again, the October 2017 referendum was suspended by the Constitutional Court and violently suppressed by the Spanish law enforcement agencies, reinforcing independence demands. Debating Period. We asked two experts to debate about student loans cancellation. © 2021 Quartz Media, Inc. All rights reserved. We’ve taken a look at a few of the aspects of the region that make it unique, from its language, to its pioneering achievements in art, architecture, gastronomy—and human towers. To begin with, it is not clear that Catalans constitute a ‘nation’ or a ‘people’ with a right to statehood. Catalonia certainly has a distinctive history, language and culture. Catalonia is a region of northeastern Spain: it's home to Barcelona, 7.5 million people, and a proud tradition of independence dating back nearly 1,000 years.Although officially part of Spain since the state was created, the region has its own language and cultural identity. Daniel Gascón examines where all this leaves the rights of Catalonia’s residents. The region enjoyed great autonomy until General Franco’s regime, during which its sovereignty was ruthlessly and repeatedly violated. News Spain: Sanchez, Casado clash on Catalonia during TV debate. Questions around nationhood, tax autonomy, international representation and policy powers are at the heart of Sunday's violence-marred independence referendum in Catalonia, Spain's wealthiest region. The Catalan independence referendum of 2017, also known by the numeronym 1-O (for "1 October") in Spanish media, was an independence referendum held on 1 October 2017 in the Spanish autonomous community of Catalonia, passed by the Parliament of Catalonia as the Law on the Referendum on Self-determination of Catalonia and called by the Generalitat de Catalunya. Despite revoking its powers, Madrid will be obliged to give Catalonia further autonomy eventually. The right to self-determination is established in Article 1 of the Charter of the United Nations, as well as at the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. In a heated debate on RT, former pro-independence Catalan MP Carles Prats challenged the pro-unionist political scientist Ruben Tamboleo over the validity of Catalonia's proclaimed split from Madrid, who in turn, stripped the region of its autonomy. But, otherwise, the prerequisites for secession are not even close to being satisfied anywhere on the continent, particularly in the EU. Catalonia debates as independence declaration looms Catalan President Carles Puigdemont could declare independence from Spain on Tuesday ... which could mean suspending the region’s autonomy. Half-chef, half-scientist, his development of radical cooking techniques, such as spherification—turning liquid into spheres usually using sodium alginate, so it looks like little balls of roe—revolutionized the texture, taste, and presentation of food. This repression has included the criminalization of dissidence, censorship in media and internet, lawfare, police brutality, the disqualification of democratically elected public officials, as well as the jailing of political representatives and civil society leaders, including Ms Carme Forcadell and Mr Jordi Sànchez, the former Presidents of the organization I represent. 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