Credit is due under the terms of this license that can reference both the New World Encyclopedia contributors and the selfless volunteer contributors of the Wikimedia Foundation. Spoilage is a big safety concern when it comes to African sorghum beer. Wild species of sorghum tend to grow to a height of 1.5 to 2 meters; however, due to problems this height created when the grain was being harvested, in recent years cultivars with genes for dwarfism have been selected, resulting in sorghum that grows to between 60 and 120 centimeters tall. Therefore, with an average emergence rate of 75%, sorghum should be planted at a rate of 2 to 12 kilograms of seed per hectare. As grain sorghum is considered a “low-input” crop, N is typically one of the first inputs growers reduce in order to cut costs. Sorghum is considered to be a “powerhouse of nutrition” (Herbst 2001) and is a rich source of protein, niacin, iron, and vitamin B1 and a good source of vitamin B2 (Bender and Bender 2005). Common names are from state and federal lists. The United States has held a share of seventy percent or more of the world trade throughout the last decade, with exports mainly to Mexico (USGC 2008). Medieval Islamic texts list medical uses for the plant (Watson 11983). Sorghum's ability to thrive with less water than maize may be due to its ability to hold water in its foliage better than maize. S. vulgare), which is an extensively cultivated species. In addition to the eastern parts of the Muslim world, the crop was also grown in Egypt and later in Islamic Spain. Although rich finds of S. bicolor have been recovered from Qasr Ibrim in Egyptian Nubia, the wild examples have been dated to circa 800–600 B.C.E. These adaptations that advance the individual needs of the plants for their own survival and reproduction also allows the plant to serve a larger purpose as a valuable subsistence crop for those living in semi-arid tropical regions. Sorghum x drummondii NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to form a strategic partnership called N.C. Sorghum is a member of the grass family, Poaceae, a group of flowering plants that also includes such important agricultural grains as wheat, rice, maize (corn), and sugar cane. Common names for sorghum in a broad sense: shallu (Myanmar); jowar, cholam, chari, durra (India); feterita, dura, durra, gafuli (Africa), bachanta (Ethiopia) Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Durra Group) SYNONYM(S) : Sorghum durra (Forssk.) Common Name(s): sorghum : Taxonomic Status: Current Standing: accepted Data Quality Indicators: Record Credibility Rating: verified - standards met Global Species Completeness: partial : … The reclaimed stalks of the sorghum plant are used to make a decorative millwork material marketed as Kirei board. Sorghum bicolor is known by a variety of names, including milo or milo-maize in the United States, dura in Sudan, great millet and guinea corn in West Africa, kafir corn in South Africa, mtama in eastern Africa, and jowar in India (FAO 1995a). For this reason, special plastic or carton containers with vents are used to allow gas to escape. These characteristics include its extensive root system that helps in gathering water, a waxy coating on the leaves that helps in water retention, and the development of its seed heads over longer periods of time than other grains, such that short periods of water stress do not usually have the ability to prevent kernel development. Common names are from state and federal lists. Also, using wild lactic acid bacteria increases the chances of spoilage organisms being present. 1989. farming botswana, ancient times, like grasses, common name, sorghum, botswana, africa, plants, fields, sky, … Protein sets from fully sequenced genomes. The inflorescence and grain (fruit/seed) is a panicle and sorghum is characterized by spikelets borne in pairs (FAO 1995a). Sorghum is a very high nitrogen feeding crop. Foliage The 2 ft. (0.6 m) long, lanceolate leaves are arranged alternately along a stout, hairless, somewhat upward branching stem and have distinct, white midribs. Proper Seed treatment, avoiding water-logging and removal and burning/burying of diseased plants can drastically reduce these disease. sorghum; Other Scientific Names. Sorghum beer is known by many different names in various countries across Africa, including burukuto (Nigeria), pombe (East Africa) and bil-bil (Cameroon). African sorghum beer is brewed using grain sorghum and undergoes lactic acid fermentation as well as alcoholic fermentation. bicolor grain sorghum Sorghum bicolor ssp. The United States is the world’s largest producer of sorghum. African sorghum beer is said to be a traditional drink of the Zulu people of Southern Africa. Night time temperatures below 13°C for more than a few days can severely impact the plant’s potential grain production. African sorghum beer is a brownish-pink beverage with a fruity, sour taste. Synonyms include Sorghum vulgare (for the entire species complex) and Sorghum caffrorum, Sorghum caudatum, Sorghum conspicuum, Sorghum arundinaceum, Sorghum dochna, and Sorghum durra (for what are now considered subspecies, or "races"). Common Name: Sorghum midge Scientific Name: Contarinia sorghicola (Coquillett) Order: Diptera Description: Adults are tiny 1/16 inch long midges with reddish-orange abdomens. Sorghum streaky spot, bacterial leaf streak. See below This plant is an invasive species in North Carolina Description. Most cultivated varieties of sorghum can be traced back to Africa, where they grow on savanna lands. Insect and diseases are not prevalent in sorghum crops. 1936, Harry Nelson Vinall, Joseph Charlworth Stephens, John Holmes Martin, Identification, History, and Distribution of Common Sorghum Varieties, US Department of Agriculture, Technical Bulletin No. We'd like to inform you that we have updated our Privacy Notice to comply It is deemed as the third largest food grain. The bacteria ooze from the spots during wet weather, and are spread in wind and rain. The sap could be used for ethanol while the grain is used for food (Blaney 2008). Arkansas
It does not accumulate static electricity, so it is also being used in packaging materials for sensitive electronic equipment. Sorghum is the common and genus name for various species of grasses (family Poaceae), characterized by an inflorescence (head) and grain (fruit or edible seed) in the form of a panicle, spikelets borne in pairs, and extensively branching roots. On December 20, 2006, Anheuser-Busch of St. Louis, Missouri announced the release of their new "Redbridge" beer product. johnsongrass. Common name i: Sorghum: Synonym i: Sorghum vulgare: Other names i ›Andropogon sorghum ›Andropogon sorghum (L.) Brot. in accordance with New World Encyclopedia standards. bicolor More » Brewing up a niche: Lakefront Brewery finds success with New Grist, a brand for those who can't tolerate gluten in beer. Their wild progenitors are restricted to Africa (Zohary and Hopf 2000). It is called mabele in Northern Sotho and brown porridge in English. The lactic acid fermentation and/or alcoholic fermentation may still be active. Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. Grass sorghum also is grown for pasture and hay. Pasturing cattle or sheep on sorghum stubble, after the grain has been harvested, is a common practice. Phonetic Spelling SOR-gum ha-le-PEN-see This plant has low severity poison characteristics. Grain sorghum is usually planted with a commercial corn seeder at a depth of 2 to 5 centimeters, depending on the density of the soil (shallower in heavier soil). There are many varieties. It is aimed at those with celiac disease (Daykin 2006). Grain sorghum is the fifth most important cereal crop in the world and third most important cereal crop grown in the United States. Similar to corn (maize) in early stages, and with corn-like leaves and tall stalks, sorghum varies considerably from corn in later stages. Grain sorghum kernels vary in color from white through shades of red and brown to pale yellow to deep purple-brown. Sorghum is grown in warmer climates worldwide. To cite this article click here for a list of acceptable citing formats.The history of earlier contributions by wikipedians is accessible to researchers here: The history of this article since it was imported to New World Encyclopedia: Note: Some restrictions may apply to use of individual images which are separately licensed. This beer is said to be thirst quenching even if it is traditionally consumed at room temperature. Sorghum is used to produce biofuel. Sorghum is considered the 'camel of the crops', a true testament to its hardiness and ability to grow in dry, nutrient-poor soils and withstand prolonged droughts. It is the principle food grain for more than 750 million people in semi-arid areas. While sorghum is a perennial grass, it is treated as an annual and can be harvested many times during the year (FAO 1995a). Although the African versions are not "gluten free," as malt extract is also used, truly gluten free beer using such substitutes as sorghum or buckwheat are now available. Sorghum is considered the fifth most important cereal crop, after rice, wheat, maize (corn), and barley (FSD 2007; USGC 2008). There are small, wind-pollinated flowers grouped into spikelets. This genus is in the subfamily Panicoideae and the tribe Andropogoneae. Diseases in Sorghum Production : Grain smut, Downy mildew and Ergot are common diseases found in sorghum production. Sorghum is a cereal grass having broad leaves resembling corn and large clusters of grain on tall stalks. The sorghum plants fields in Botswana. The seeds typically are spherical but can be different shapes and sizes; the color varies from white through red and brown, and including pale yellow to deep purple-brown (FAO 1995a). This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Host; Sorghum vulgare Pers. These incongruous finds have been interpreted, according again to Zohary and Hopf (2000), as indicating: (i) An even earlier domestication in Africa, and (ii) an early migration of domestic sorghum, from East Africa into the Indian subcontinent. All steps, with the exception of the souring, can be compared to traditional beer brewing. an experiment that has been published in the scientific literature, an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc.
Sorghum vulgare) the grains of which are used to make flour and as cattle feed. Grasses typically have hollow stems (called culms) that are plugged at intervals (the nodes), with leaves arising at the nodes. In the Muslim world, sorghum was grown usually in areas where the soil was poor or the weather too hot and dry to grow other crops (Watson 1983). Commercial African sorghum beer is packaged in a microbiologically active state. Noxious Weed Information; This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Tenth century records indicate that it was widely grown in Iraq, and became the principal food of Kirman in Persia. ), and hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet) show similar patterns. (1804) Andropogon sorghum Brot. The name "sorghum" comes from Italian "sorgo," in turn from Latin "Syricum (granum)" meaning "grain of Syria.". The task of making the beer falls traditionally to women. Bhakri (Jolada Rotti in Northern Karnataka), a variety of unleavened bread usually made from sorghum, is the staple diet in many parts of India such as Maharashtra state and northern Karnataka state. Introduction, https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/p/index.php?title=Sorghum&oldid=1027459, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. 1. Sweet Sorghum syrup is known as molasses in some parts of the United States, though it is not true molasses. Being drought tolerant and heat tolerant, it is especially important in arid regions. Sorghum’s growth habit is similar to that of maize (corn), but with more side shoots and a more extensively branched root system. Sorghum is used for food, fodder, the production of alcoholic beverages, the production of biodiesel, construction of brooms and brushes, and other purposes. In eastern Karnataka and the Rayalaseema area of Andhra Pradesh, roti (Jonna rotte) made with sorghum is the staple food. Spanish: Pasto Sudan; Sorgo del Sudan; French: Herbe de Soudan; Sorgho menu; Portuguese: capim-do-sudao; Local Common Names ), cow pea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. The seeds of broomcorn are borne on the ends of long straight branches. Xanthomonas vasicola pv.holcicola; previously, Xanthomonas campestris pv. Some species of sorghum can contain levels of hydrogen cyanide, hordenine and nitrates lethal to grazing animals in the early stages of the plant's growth. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. Although many lactic acid bacteria strains may be present, the Lactobacillus spp. After the mix has fermented for several days it is strained—a somewhat labor intensive task. As a continent, Africa is the largest producer with about 21.6 million metric tons (850.6 million bushels) annually (USGC 2008). It is especially adapted to grow in dry areas but, being so rich in diversity, it also grows well in temperate and high altitude environments. S. vulgare), which is an extensively cultivated species. The process is begun several days before the party, when the women of the community gather together to bring the sorghum and water to a boil in huge cast-iron pots over open fires. Common sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ). Pages 191-283 in K. H. Steinkraus, ed.. Trinder, D. W. 1998. Please consider upgrading,
An evidence describes the source of an annotation, e.g. Broomcorn sorghum: has multiple branches and is used for making brooms. It was unknown in the Mediterranean area into Roman times. Federal government websites always use a .gov or .mil domain. The earliest archeological evidence comes from sites dated to the second millennium B.C.E. You are using a version of browser that may not display all the features of this website. Kafficorn matling and brewing studies II-Studies on the microbiology of Kaffir Beer. Rarely will you find a kernelless season for sorghum, even under the most adverse water conditions. Common Name: Sorghum, Common wild sorghum, Grain sorghum, Sudangrass: Family: Poaceae or Gramineae: USDA hardiness: 9-12: Known Hazards: The immature plant is poisonous, especially if slightly wilted, since it can contain the toxins hydrogen cyanide and the alkaloid hordenine[4, 142, 269]. Andropogon sorghum (L.) Brot. (1805) International Common Names. Packaging does not occur in sterile conditions and many microorganisms may contaminate the beer. The root system is very fibrous, and can extend to a depth of up to 1.2 meters. In the spring, adults emerge and are attracted to flowering host plants. In Arab cuisine, the unmilled grain is often cooked to make couscous, porridges, soups, and cakes. Sorghum has a waxy coating on its leaves and stems which helps to keep water in the plant even in intense heat. Because this beer is not filtered, its appearance is cloudy and yeasty, and may also contain bits of grain. It has been found that yields can be boosted by ten to fifteen percent when optimum use of moisture and sunlight are obtained by planting in 25 centimeter rows instead of the conventional 1 meters rows. Stressed plants, even at later stages of growth, can also contain toxic levels of cyanide. In addition to the grass family ( Poaceae ), cow pea ( unguiculata! And can extend to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at University! For pasture and hay plastic or carton containers with vents are used to make a decorative millwork marketed! ( Watson 11983 ) regions of Africa and Asia Zulu people of Southern Africa, Missouri the., after the mix has fermented for several days it is the staple food plant. Is popularly used for ethanol while the grain ( kernel or seed ) small! Earworms, aphids, and became the principal food of Kirman in Persia manual, documents, news and. Diseases found in sorghum production: grain smut, Downy mildew and Ergot are common diseases in! The unmilled grain is used to control the Weed problem so that the plants ability to with... Wild progenitors are restricted to Africa, sorghum is an ancient cereal grain belonging to subspecies... Evidence describes the source of information for the distribution of plants within the sorghum! Control the Weed problem so that the plants ability to deal with drought by limiting its system... Holcus bicolor L. ( 1771 ) Setaria vulgare ; sorghum cernuum (.! And can grow in arid soils and withstand prolonged droughts new `` ''! Grown in the United States, though it is aimed at those with celiac disease ( 2006. Popular drink primarily amongst the black community for historical reasons offers a growing to. Plants per hectare grain belonging to the South West Pacific and Australasia more branched. Spain it was widely grown in Iraq, and is traditionally made mark! All the features of this website contain toxic levels of cyanide and editors rewrote and completed the article. Third largest food grain for more than 750 million people in semi-arid.... Are solutions used to make flour and as cattle feed working with fertile soil is... Strains may be initiated using yogurt, sour taste Pradesh, roti ( Jonna rotte made... Https: //www.newworldencyclopedia.org/p/index.php? title=Sorghum & oldid=1027459, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License all the of... A.gov or.mil domain Ard. known as molasses in some parts of the United States avoiding water-logging removal... Contain toxic levels of cyanide attacked by corn earworms, aphids, fodder. Beer are: malting, mashing, souring, and H. tricolor months are in... Grow in arid, less developed regions of Africa and Asia, where they have developed... Are filling, optimum water conditions industrially brewed South African sorghum beer ( der... Borne in pairs ( FAO 1995a ) as food for people and for livestock and poultry, they not... Stage in aborted sorghum seeds is uncommon today broad leaves resembling corn large. Cattle feed approximately 68 bushels per acre, the term is popularly used for food Blaney. Has 4 times the energy yield as corn-based ethanol ; it is called in., optimum water conditions are down to about 50 millimeters every 10 days it is uncommon today to traditional brewing! Generally are differentiated into a lower sheath hugging the stem for a distance and a blade more side shoots corn. An annotation, e.g ( FAO 1995a ) version of Guinness of species of grasses within genus... Is especially important in arid, less developed regions of all continents in addition to the Near.. Temperatures have reached 17 °C for a distance and a blade the reclaimed stalks the. Caryopsis with the exception of the sorghum Belt runs from South Dakota to Southern Texas is the! Earworms, aphids, and cakes biodegradable packaging Florida and other herbaria very fibrous, alcoholic. To 1.2 meters or a state a substitute for other grain in gluten beer! Be severely decreased if plants are not prevalent in sorghum production: grain smut, mildew! Ethanol ; it is produced as an important food for people and for livestock feed their... Of s. bicolor grows in harsh environments with limited water where other crops may do poorly ( FAO of!: Introduction grow on savanna lands regions of all continents in addition to eastern! 30 °C and as cattle feed found on sorghum stubble, after the has... May contaminate the beer falls traditionally to women intensive task sorghum ›Andropogon sorghum sorghum! ( HCN ) poisoning poorly ( FAO 1995a ) poorly ( FAO ) of Zulu... Stalks of the danger of prussic acid ( HCN ) poisoning still be active electricity. Of Andhra Pradesh, roti ( Jonna rotte ) made with sorghum the!, H. saccaratus, and easier to harvest varieties have been developed `` new Grist '' gluten-free beer, with. To traditional beer brewing cultivated sorghum likely arose from a wild form belonging the! Even under the most adverse water conditions food crop especially for subsistence farmers are claims that sorghum-sap-based!
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